Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Can Be Contagious
Did we know this already? Or think it might be possible when we tell ourselves we’ve just got a little bit of PTSD. That we weren’t “there” so … you know, it’s not us. Or we listen to people who tell us “you weren’t there, so no, stop being dramatic.”
RESEARCH SUGGESTS THAT IT IS ENTIRELY POSSIBLE AND IT HAS BEEN LABELLED SECONDARY TRAUMA
**When caregivers, rescue workers or family members attend to someone with post-traumatic stress disorder who has suffered a horrible experience, a number of them develop “secondary” PTSD, without themselves having witnessed the traumatic event.
**Stories of trauma, it seems, can become etched into memory as if they were the hearer’s own experiences. This memory transfer may occur because the brain regions that process real and imagined experiences overlap considerably.
**The more that caregivers or family members empathize with a victim and the less able they are to maintain emotional distance, the more likely it is that they will experience secondary trauma.
The most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders acknowledges the problem. A diagnosis of PTSD no longer requires the immediate experience of a traumatic event; a person need not have been a victim or even an eyewitness. It is enough simply to hear the details. Recent research has begun to clarify how common the problem is and why some people are more susceptible to it than others.
THE FULL ARTICLE ON SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN CAN BE REACHED HERE
POOR SLEEP TRIGGERS VIRAL LONELINESS AND SOCIAL REJECTION
WHY THIS IS SO IMPORTANT TO KNOW
As shift workers we are chronically sleep deprived, depending on which rotation we're currently doing, it's just the nature of the job.
The findings in this study show that there is a connection between our desire to interact with others – our partners, our families, friends, the neighbors, the gas station attendant, etc – and our ability to actually interact in a positive way, if at all, when we are tired. We want to, but we don't want to. And because we appear tired, others do not want to engage with us… and the circle is complete.
The findings, published in the journal Nature Communications, show a two-way relationship between sleep loss and becoming socially isolated, shedding new light on a global loneliness epidemic.
"We humans are a social species. Yet sleep deprivation can turn us into social lepers," says study senior author Matthew Walker, PhD, a UC Berkeley professor of psychology and neuroscience, in a release. "There's no biological or social safety net for sleep deprivation as there is for, say, starvation. That's why our physical and mental health implodes so quickly even after the loss of just one or two hours of sleep."
*Sleep loss blunted activity in brain regions that normally encourage social engagement.
*Sleep deprived individual's brains perceived spatial "incoming human threat" at a distance 18-60% further back than those well-rested
*Healthy observers felt alienated after just a 60 second video clip of a lonely person
*Research showed that the amount of sleep one got accurately predicted how lonely and unsociable they would be the next day.
Often we push ourselves to engage socially, or beat ourselves up because we just "don't want to" go somewhere. And this is not to say that loneliness and depression and isolation are not real things, because they are, and they aren't going to be "cured" with a good stretch of sleep. This is validation though, that there are times when we need to hit pause and get some rest.
LINK TO STUDY
LINK TO ARTICLE
Sleep Loss Linked to Internet Availability
I knew it was your fault with your specials and series and binge worthy shows — how could you?
A new study out of Germany has shown that persons with access to the Internet get less sleep than those who don’t (but really who doesn’t have access these days?). This is apparently due to streaming, game playing and those times you fall down the rabbit hole on Insta, FB, YouTube etc. The key is whether you’re able to compensate for the later night by waking up later the next morning, or in the case of Shift Workers, later that same day…. Or whatever day it is. 25 minutes lost. I can lose 25 minutes just laying in bed thinking about how many minutes I have already not been asleep.
Most curious is that they’ve spent money studying this. Actually. Spent. Money.
Here's the link to the study
Why 9-5 Isn't the Only Schedule That Can Work for Busy Families
But a new study from the University of Washington finds that consistent hours, at whatever time of day, can give families flexibility and in some cases, improve children's behaviour.
The study, first made available online in December 2017 before being published in the June issue of the Journal of Family Issues, focuses on two-parent families in which one parent works a nonstandard shift, hours that are common in health care, law enforcement and the service sector. The study finds that the impacts of parent work schedules on children vary by age and gender, and often reflect which shift a parent works. Rotating shifts -- a schedule that varies day by day or week by week -- can be most problematic for children.
"Workers often struggle to carve out the work/life balance they want for themselves, and in dual-earner families, balancing partners' schedules remains an issue for many families," said Christine Leibbrand, a graduate student in the UW department of sociology and author of the study. "Parents are facing these decisions of balancing work and caring for their children."
Nonstandard schedules, especially for single-parent and lower-income families, are associated with behavior problems among children, according to past research.
To add to that research, Leibbrand examined data on two-parent households in which one parent worked a nonstandard shift. On this, she was inspired in part by her own family: a sibling who's a nurse, another a firefighter, both with children.
Using information from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which started following a group of nearly 13,000 individuals in 1979, and its Child Supplement, which started following the children of those individuals in 1986, Leibbrand analyzed parents' work schedules against their periodic reports of their children's behavior. Child behavior (covering ages 5 to 15) was ascertained from a 28-question survey that covers issues such as anxiety, aggression and getting along with peers. Those results receive a Behavioral Problems Index score -- the higher the score, the more problems a child is reported to have.
Among Leibbrand's findings:
• A mother's night shift tended to have benefits for boys and girls, especially when they're young
• A mother's rotating shift, or a split shift -- say, going to work for a few hours in the morning, and again in the evening -- was associated with greater problems among boys of all ages, and among older girls
• A father's rotating or split shift was associated with more behavior problems among girls, particularly younger girls
• A father's night shift tended to coincide with behavioral benefits among boys
What's less clear is why.
The gender differences may relate to parent involvement. Some research finds that fathers tend to be more involved in their sons' lives, perhaps explaining why fathers' shift schedules are more likely to be associated with benefits for boys. Other research on the impact of shift work on adults' physical and emotional stamina, Leibbrand said, suggests that parents who work nonstandard schedules may be under more stress and sometimes have less energy, or "psychological capital" to meet their child's needs. Unstable shift schedules, like rotating shifts, could be especially stressful for parents. This stress may have important repercussions for children, as children learn to model their parents' behavior.
Since most of the children aged out of the survey by 2006, how these issues may play out today is a question, too. Technology has transformed how children play and learn, as well as how adults work, increasing the numbers who work remotely while rendering some jobs obsolete. All of those trends could affect child behavior and a family's quality of life, Leibbrand said.
But when it comes to nonstandard shift work, a consistent schedule -- the same hours, on the same days each week -- appears to buffer the negative effects, according to Leibbrand's research. It provides consistency in child care, gives children more structure and allows the family to predict a parent's availability for activities. A parent who regularly works the night shift, for example, may deliberately try to be awake and available for children before and after school, while the other parent handles dinner and bedtime routines.
But families don't always have the resources for child care or control over work schedules. That's where employers and policymakers come in, Leibbrand said. Solutions could involve allowing greater flexibility in the workplace or in providing paid family leave and access to quality child care.
"Most parents want to spend time with their children and want to find a way to do that," she said. "We should be prioritizing people's well-being and balancing of work and home life."
This study was funded by a Shanahan Endowment Fellowship and training and research grants from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
What is Sleep Reactivity
"The FORD Insomnia Response To Stress Test (FIRST) measures the degree to which stress exposure disrupts sleep (your reactivity), resulting in difficulty falling and staying asleep. Individuals with highly reactive sleep systems experience drastic deterioration of sleep when stressed, whereas those with low sleep reactivity proceed largely unperturbed during stress. Research shows that genetics, familial history of insomnia, female gender and environmental stress influence how the sleep system responds to stress. Sleep reactivity is most pathologically and clinically pertinent when in excess, such that high sleep reactivity predicts risk for future insomnia disorder, with early evidence suggesting high sleep reactivity corresponds to severe insomnia phenotypes (sleep onset insomnia and short sleep insomnia). High sleep reactivity is also linked to risk of shift-work disorder, depression and anxiety. Importantly, stress-related worry and rumination may exploit sensitive sleep systems, thereby augmenting the pathogenicity of sleep reactivity. With the development of cost-effective assessment of sleep reactivity, we can now identify individuals at risk of future insomnia, shift-work disorder and mental illness, thus identifying a target population for preventive intervention. Given that insomniacs with high sleep reactivity tend to present with severe insomnia phenotypes, patient sleep reactivity may inform triaging to different levels of treatment. Future research on sleep reactivity is needed to clarify its neurobiology, characterize its long-term prospective associations with insomnia and shift-work disorder phenotypes, and establish its prognostic value for mental illness and other non-sleep disorders."
Our different careers have different testing specific to the jobs we do. Can a test for the “ability” to sleep while stressed be that far away given that shift work is in itself stressful? Would hiring this way reduce sick time? It's something I'm sure will be looked at some day.
Why They Need a Privacy Booth and You do Too
It’s pricey but it’s got two very important things: privacy and silence, and if you’ve ever been involved in a heated discussion with your partner(s), or talking to your bank, or telling your kids just why they better do what you said and what will happen to them if they don’t from the privacy of your office stall and someone comes in…. well you know the whispering through gritted teeth that turns into.
More than that though, is the need for silence away from everything but not away to the point of unreachable. There’s a window. I can see you, you can see me and if you need me, I’m right there.
Would your work place get this for you? Is it even feasible? The difference might be just that companies that do invest in it do so for the possibility of increased revenue from a better-driven deal. If the places that we work for provided this sort of thing it would be because they were investing in their employees’ mental health and wellbeing. Which we know leads to increased morale, productivity, and lowered sick time. And right there’s your bottom line.
This is what you get for approx 5000K US
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The Top Reasons You Should Go To Bed
1. "I don't want to die."
While it sounds dramatic, there's a link between chronic sleep deprivation and an early death, "because the defense system of your body will fail," says Roy Raymann, the vice president of sleep science at SleepScore Labs. "You will die from an infection before dying from fatigue."
Sleep deprivation has also been linked to an increased risk of stroke, diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure. "When we have those individual health consequences, those lead to higher risk of cardiovascular disease, which can lead to an earlier death," Dredla says. Indeed, a 2017 review of research published in Journal of the American Heart Association even found that sleeping less than seven hours a night is linked to an increased risk of heart disease – and that the risk increases the less you sleep.
2. "I don't want to 'lose my marbles' when I get old."
Long-term brain health, too, seems to take a hit when we consistently don't get enough high-quality sleep. A 2017 study in the journal Neurology, for example, found that with each percentage lost of rapid eye movement, or REM, sleep (the deep, dream phase), the risk of dementia increases 9 percent. "During the sleep state, we are able to clear toxins from the brain," says Rebecca Robbins, a postdoctoral fellow at the New York University School of Medicine, where she studies the role sleep plays in memory, cognition, health and longevity. "That removal every night is what plays a role in the ability of the brain to rinse [itself] of toxins and stave off long-term neurocognitive decline."
3. "I'm trying to lose or maintain weight."
If you're on a weight-loss mission, or simply want to maintain your weight, you're probably focusing on your diet and exercise. But your sleep is just as important. One analysis of studies found that people who got five or six hours of sleep a night had 20 percent greater odds of being overweight or 57 percent greater odds of being obese than people who slept seven to eight hours. Sleeping even less than that doubled the risk of obesity. The connection seems to be due to the fact that sleep deprivation disrupts your hunger and satiety hormones, making you want to eat more – and eat more sugary, high-carbohydrate foods, Parthasarathy says. Plus, there's the practical matter of being awake long enough to crave another meal or snack. "Together, it does a number on us," he says.
4. "I've got a tough workout in the morning."
When Christine Binnendyk, a pilates studio owner in Portland, Oregon, feels pressure from friends and family to stay awake, she reminds them – and herself – of her morning duties: “I’m the entertainment at 8 a.m. tomorrow, so I need my beauty sleep tonight," she says. But even if you're the one taking an exercise class, sleeping well the night before makes a big difference in what you get out of it. Not only will you feel fatigued and may even put yourself in danger since you're more prone to slipping on a trail run or weakening your grip on bench press, research shows that poor sleep affects athletic performance by compromising the body's ability to use oxygen efficiently, a measure known as VO2 max. "If we don't have quality or quantity of sleep our body needs, we don't perform well from a sports standpoint the next day," Dredla says.
5. "Work is intense right now."
As Mendelsohn knows, a good night's sleep is necessary for peak cognitive performance – whether you're performing a surgery, writing a report or giving a presentation. "When we're well-rested, we're able to fly through tasks, we're much more productive, much more creative," Robbins says. "When we're sleep-deprived, we're more risk-averse, we're less productive, it takes longer to do a given task." Sufficient sleep is also key after those brain-draining days, since that's when your brain "integrates" what you've learned – so save the celebratory night out for Saturday. "Missing out on sleep after learning prevents all knowledge to be optimally stored for long time use and benefit," Raymann says.
6. "I'm going to be no fun to be around tomorrow if I don't sleep enough tonight."
Whether it's your boss, spouse or best friend urging you to stay up, remind them that they'll have to deal with your snappy mood the next day if you don't give in to the sandman. "Mood is one of the first things to go when we wake up with not enough sleep – we're irritable, anxious, not our full dynamic selves," Robbins says. Part of that has to do with the sleep deprivation's detrimental effect on your ability to take others' perspectives, she adds. "When we're well-rested, we're able to say: Let's step back; let's look at the bigger picture." When you're not, you're more likely to say or do something you – and those around you – regret.
7. "I don't want to hurt anyone."
Sleep deprivation doesn't just make you more likely to hurt others' feelings, it can also quite frankly make you a danger to others. One recent, comprehensive report out of the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety found that 9.5 percent of all car crashes involved drowsiness. An earlier report from the foundation found sleeping only five or six hours doubles your risk of crashing as compared to logging at least seven hours of shuteye in the previous 24 hours. In some states, drowsy driving is a punishable offense; it can be criminal in New Jersey, for instance. So if you won't go to sleep for your own health; do it for others' safety. "If you don't snooze," Dredla says, "you lose."
From an article in US News by Anna Medaris Miller. Follow her on Twitter or email her at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dr. Roneil Malkani, assistant professor of neurology at Northwestern University, says that we assign colors to sound the same way that we do with light. So white noise is a combination of all the other sound waves (violet, blue, white, pink and brown/red) the same way white light is made up of all the colors of the rainbow.
“When all of those various sound frequencies are equally represented, you get white noise,” he explained, which is why it makes a constant static or “shhhh” sound.
But pink noise is all about that bass. “Pink noise is very similar to white noise, but it’s shifted toward the lower end of the spectrum,” said Dr. Malkani. “The sound pulses and has more bass in it.” Which is why pink noise is likened to rainstorms, or sometimes rumbling traffic — which you may have even considered white noise before.
Northwestern University has been studying whether pink noise can enhance sleep because the frequency of pink sound waves is actually very similar to that of our brain waves during stage 3 slow wave sleep — which is also the sleep stage linked to memory processing, particularly remembering facts.
Another study done with people napping in 2016, found that those who listened to pink noise in their sleep had deeper sleep and better memory recall. And a 2012 study in China tested pink noise an adult subjects during both nighttime sleep and daytime naps, and while they found the subjects had deeper sleep in the evening, there was an even greater improvement with their daytime napping when they listened to pink noise.
So pink noise could be a dream for the three in four chronically sleep deprived workers who snooze less than the recommended seven to nine hours a night.
There are many sleep noise apps on iTunes and Google Play. Playnoise.com is also a free noise app with Pink and other color noises available.
(from moneyish.com, Nicole Lyn Pesce)
Americans are not shy about using foods, beverages or substances that might enhance their sleep quality. Perhaps surprisingly, herbal sleep aids—like tea and melatonin—top the list of favorites. And foods rich in calcium and magnesium—like bananas and ice cream—rank higher than prescription pharmaceutical sleep aids like Ambien. According to Sleep Cycle’s survey, the rankings are:
Milk and cookies: 14%
Nyquil or Tylenol PM: 12%
Ice cream: 10%
Ambien, Xanax, or other sleeping pills: 9%
Americans also perform all kinds of rituals to get a good night’s sleep. Top rituals include: sleeping with a fan or white noise machine (28%), taking a hot bath or shower before bed (26%), and reading a relaxing book (21%). One in 10 also put away their phone or computer at least an hour before bed, but 28% sleep with their TV on all night.
Americans would give up quite a lot for a full, uninterrupted 8 hours of quality sleep. Social media would be first to go (27%). This is followed by: chocolate (21%), streaming services or cable TV (13%), sex (11%), their fitness routine (10%).
(from Wired, Matt Jancer, April 9, 2018)
IT'S BREATHING. THE chest rises and falls rhythmically, hypnotically. We guess it's the chest. Nobody's marketed a sleep robot before, and we're not even sure it's a robot. It looks like a pillowy four-pound kidney bean, about the size of a novelty prize at a carnival game. "Spooning the sleep robot during the night, you will be soothed to sleep," the sales literature claims, with "thousands of years of Buddhist breathing techniques."
To bring upon sleep, breathing has to become slow and even, says Natalie Dautovich, a psychologist and sleep specialist at the National Sleep Foundation. You can't fall asleep when you're huffing like a sled dog, but insomniacs fear bedtime, and fear raises breathing rate, and that makes it hard to fall asleep. The claim goes that, as you hold the sleep robot, called Somnox, you'll subconsciously match your breathing to its slow and steady rhythm, which will lure you to sleep.
Breathing has long been the key to relaxing and, eventually, falling asleep. The 4-7-8 Breathing Method, popularized by Dr. Andrew Weil in 2015 and subsequently copy-and-pasted across the internet, suggested one such method to reduce stress and induce sleep. It directs you to breathe in for four seconds through your nose, hold your breath for seven seconds, and breathe out for eight seconds through your mouth. "We've found out people are having a really hard time doing [the 4-7-8 Breathing Method] because you need to be very focused and disciplined in order to get it working," says Jagtenberg, who acknowledges that it's an effective method. "But we humans, if you interact with one another, you start copying behaviors without even knowing it. We thought this relationship was very strong when it comes to breathing. If you feel it [through the Somnox], you will subconsciously adjust your own breathing."
Looking at it and watching it in action, it's a stretch to call the Somnox "the world's first sleep robot." It just lies there and breathes—a convincing imitation of humanity, but not what you'd call a robot. "It depends on what your concept of a robot is," says Jagtenberg. "In our perception, a robot is a system that can analyze its environment with sensors that think about how to act upon that environment." Somnox is more like a Nest thermostat than a semi-mobile, sentient threat to humanity that falls down stairs.
So it's more like a smart pillow, one that will become smarter with software updates. At launch, it's only got inklings of intelligence: It can play white noise, meditation tracks, heartbeat rhythms, and audio books as you drift off. Bluetooth links it to a Somnox app on your Android or iOS phone, which you can use to speed up or slow down the Somnox's breathing rate and adjust the depth of each breath. After launch, Somnox plans two software updates later this year: an alarm that wakes you gently in the morning by moving and murmuring instead of blaring buzzers, and what Somnox calls a sleeping coach, which will be able to pair with a wearable fitness device and detect when you've had a particularly strenuous or stressful day, then develop a custom breathing rhythm for you that night to compensate.
Kickstarter backers will receive theirs in July. The second batch, taking pre-orders now for $549, will ship in October. So far, Somnox has 1,210 orders.
It's not quite a robot, and it's not yet all that smart, but the Somnox has something more important than limbs or a heart of gold: fake lungs. And would anybody really want to spoon a robot that could throw elbows and mule kicks?
Should Employers of Shift Workers Do More to Support Staff
A recent European study, cited on NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), suggests that strategies should be implemented to minimize the impact of shifts on workers and that those should be specific to the group.
The data from 15 focus groups with 109 participants was analyzed with these 3 main results:
There is an Impact on eating behavior
There is an Impact on other lifestyle behaviors such as physical activity, sleeping, alcohol consumption & smoking
There is an Impact on psychosocial health and personal well-being
An overlap was noted between these 3 things and the ability to make good decisions about them. This speaks to what we already know about working shifts. In that we, when tired, don’t always make the right choices to keep ourselves healthy.
We are certainly responsible for our own selves and not sure what they’d do, but the research is out there – is anyone in management listening?
Link to study
“We know that people who live with depression and people who sleep poorly both have abnormal microbes in the gut, which would suggest there is a very real connection here between all three,” says Spector. “I’ve always found that if you help someone sleep, it improves their depression, and vice versa. If we can also look after the gut, this may have an impact on both sleep disturbances and mood disorders.” It has long been known that there is a reciprocal relationship between depression and sleep, in that most depressed people sleep poorly and many insomniacs develop depressive symptoms.
Spector is convinced that you can improve sleep disturbance with diet. “That was dismissed until recently by psychiatrists and sleep therapists, but if we eat badly, we sleep badly,” he says. “If you wanted to improve sleep, you could try a gut-friendly regime by eating a broad and inclusive diet with real food, not processed. Everyone is going to be different.
read the rest here
First up – Myscha Bähr, affectionately known as Myscha Bear, by his own description: Firefighter (5yrs), Photographer (10yrs+), Doctor in the works, part time Seneca Pre-Fire Instructor, arborist, and future Fire Chief.
on instagram @myschbear
SWG: Why do you take the pics you take?
MB: I enjoy taking photos because I really value having a creative outlet. Between what we see on the job and any other life stresses, I find it’s important to have a creative passion, which gives me something to focus on. I love how you can create, I consider myself an image-maker rather than just a photographer.
SWG: How do you fit it all in to your shift work job?
MB: I take photos at the fire hall when possible, to create black and white photos of the truck, tools and various equipment where I hope to create a catalogue of the fire service in a black and white series. Off shift, I set days aside to go shoot for myself or I will be shooting for clients as well as the TPFFA.
(Toronto Professional Fire Fighter’s Association)
SWG: it's an after night shift breakfast, what do you eat, and where?
MB: I usually do not eat breakfast, but a few times I will go to my favourite breakfast place called Boom. There are several locations in Toronto, I tend to go to the location at Yonge and Eglinton and I go alone. I appreciate my alone time, which is often where I get to take pause and enjoy what I’m doing rather than being committed and mindful of all the other things I’m usually doing.
Studies have found an association between insufficient sleep and the development of insulin resistance, one of the factors that cause type 2 diabetes, and now researchers have discovered a biological reason for this relationship, at least in men: an imbalance between their testosterone and cortisol hormones. Insulin resistance occurs when the body does not properly use the hormone insulin. Testosterone is the main anabolic, or muscle-building, hormone, whereas cortisol -- often called the "stress hormone" -- helps catabolism, or breaking down energy and fat stores for use. Past research shows that sleep loss reduces a man's testosterone levels and increases cortisol levels
"Maintaining hormonal balance could prevent metabolic ill health occurring in individuals who do not get enough sleep," he said. "Understanding these hormonal mechanisms could lead to new treatments or strategies to prevent insulin resistance due to insufficient sleep."
Link to the full research article here
Can you tell the difference between the smarm and the charm?
Research says that when you’re tired… not so much
University of Arizona's William D.S. Killgore, a professor of psychiatry, psychology and medical imaging has done some interesting research on whether we can make the correct decision about whether someone else is happy or sad by their facial expressions. If we are tired we make mistakes.
"As a society, we don't get the full seven to eight hours of sleep that people probably need to be getting. The average American is getting a little less than six hours of sleep on average, and it could affect how you're reading people in everyday interactions," Killgore said. "You may be responding inappropriately to somebody that you just don't read correctly, especially those social emotions that make us human. Or you may not be as empathic. Your spouse or significant other may need something from you and you're less able to read that. It's possible that this could lead to problems in your relationships or problems at work. To me, that is one of the biggest problems -- how this affects our relationships."
Follow this link for the full report
The Anatomy of My Caffeine Crash
I’ve just come off a brutal set of evenings and nights. I'm not sure what's worse, the shifts I just worked or the caffeine crash I am experiencing…
When looking for information on caffeine be aware that some sites, incorrectly, use coffee and caffeine interchangeably. For example there are sites that state caffeine helps prevent type 2 diabetes when in actuality the research shows that it may be coffee that holds this health benefit (a cup of decaf has the same benefit).
Caffeine is the most commonly used, legal psychoactive substance worldwide (1). Caffeine is found in nature in the plants of coffee, tea, cocoa, and kola. It is also manufactured and added to some carbonated drinks and drugs. Examples include over the counter cold medications (1).
What Caffeine does in your body
There are some complex, well-documented chemical reactions that occur after ingesting caffeine. If one does not have an affinity for physiology and words like adenosine, dopamine, nor-epinephrine, epinephrine and the effects these neurotransmitters have on the body it can be excellent bedtime reading. Simply put, caffeine prepares our bodies to react to stressful threatening situations - it produces a flight or fight response. It increases our heart rate to allow for more blood flow to the brain and the rest of the body. It allows for clearer more focused thinking. (2)
(Did you know??)
Fish and amphibians don't get that caffeine buzz as they don't respond to some of those neurotransmitters. They also lack sympathetic nerves in their hearts. (2)
Several research studies make public the health benefits of caffeine:
It increases alertness and reduces fatigue. This may be especially important in low arousal situations (e.g. working at night). - Caffeine improves performance on vigilance tasks and simple tasks that require sustained response. Again, these effects are often clearest when alertness is reduced, although there is evidence that benefits may still occur when the person is unimpaired. Effects on more complex tasks are difficult to assess and probably involve interactions between the caffeine and other variables, which increase alertness (e.g. personality and time of day). In contrast to the effects of caffeine consumption, withdrawal of caffeine has few effects on performance. There is often an increase in negative mood following withdrawal of caffeine, but such effects may largely reflect the expectancies of the volunteers and the failure to conduct “blind” studies. Regular caffeine usage appears to be beneficial, with higher users having better mental functioning. Most people are very good at controlling their caffeine consumption to maximize the above positive effects. For example, the pattern of consumption over the day shows that caffeine is often consumed to increase alertness. In contrast to effects found from normal caffeine intake, there are reports that have demonstrated negative effects when very large amounts are given or sensitive groups (e.g. patients with anxiety disorders) were studied. (3)
Overall, caffeine intoxication requires the consumption of as little as 250mg and can lead to insomnia, muscle twitching, gastrointestinal disturbance, anxiousness, and incoherent speech or thoughts. Excess consumption becomes very dangerous, as symptoms can potentially escalate to cardiac arrest. This risk increases for avid caffeine drinkers, who reach intoxication on a regular basis. The best way to avoid these risks is to limit or eliminate caffeine consumption entirely from your diet.
But as Shift Workers this is not likely going to happen. On average, North American caffeine consumers drink about 280mg daily. It only takes a daily consumption of 100mg to experience physical dependence on the substance. To put these numbers into perspective, a medium coffee from Tim Horton’s contains roughly 140mg of caffeine. Unfortunately, as with any stimulant, there comes a time when coffee is not enough to induce a stimulatory effect.
Be careful when you’re filling up your cup.
(1) McGuinness, Teena, 2011
How to Overcome a Less Than Ideal Schedule
• Four 10-hour dayshifts
• Three 14-hour nightshifts
• One “long shift,” which is 86 hours worked in six days
The “long shift” consists of working 10-hour dayshifts on Friday and Saturday, a 24-hour shift on Sunday, and return ten hours after working a 24-hour shift to work three 14-hour nightshifts on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday. If anyone has any ideas on how to implement some quality powerlifting training into this week it would be greatly appreciated!
I always get comments from people that state, “It must be nice to go to work and get to sleep while your work” so I am going to address this with an analogy that hopefully everyone can understand.
I invite you to come over to my place and I will set up a cot in my basement for you to sleep on. I’ll make sure there’s lots of white noise so you can get a quality sleep (several grown men snoring, burping and farting) so it’s realistic. Every two hours I’m going to blow an air horn in your ear and wake you up. You must get up, get dressed and be in your car ready to go in one minute (but you don’t have to drive, I’ll drive… because I’m such a nice guy).
We’re going to drive really fast with the radio blasting, the interior lights on, and we’re going to an apartment building where you get to put on a 50-pound backpack, grab a 12-pound sledgehammer and run up several flights of stairs. (I won’t make you do anything this time, because it’s a false alarm).
We’re going to drive back home and you get to go back to bed for some “quality sleep” and we can continue this routine for the remainder of the night. Then when you get up in the morning for shift change and your eyes are bloodshot, your thoughts are scrambled and you’re trying to figure out where you are and what’s going on, I’m going to say to you “must be nice going to work and sleep all night!”
I think you get the picture.
I will argue that sleep is the most important factor to address in order to be able to train optimally and also to keep you healthy, both mentally and physically. Sleep regulates a cascade of hormone and neurotransmitter functions that keeps your body functioning properly. If you don’t believe that sleep isn’t one of the most important factors in your training, try to sleep a few nights a week for only two or three hours and see how you feel, look, and perform. I’d bet your training intensity and performance will suffer dearly, as well as a reduction in your cognitive function and mental clarity. Sleep is only one of the factors that influence your ability to train properly. What about nutrition? What about recovery? What about stress? What about other commitments? Family? One thing is certain: if you don’t get proper sleep, your recovery will not be optimal and your body will be stressed from lack of sleep.
How is it possible to try and train optimally while working these types of shifts? You can’t!
One of the first things to do is to try your best to sleep as much as you can after you get home from your shift. It is essential to have your room completely “blacked out” so there is no light whatsoever getting in. Unplug or blackout any alarm clock lights, computer lights, cell phone lights, etc.
EVERY cell in your body responds to light. Your body is so sensitive to light that universities have done sleep studies to measure hormone responses to light and had a test subject lie in a completely blacked out room. They shone a small light (about the size of a quarter) on the back of the knee and found that it disrupted normal hormonal patterns. Once again, EVERY cell in your body responds to light. If you wear a sleep mask to keep the light out while you sleep, it doesn’t work if any of your skin is exposed to light!
Flexibility is key to your training!
I had the opportunity to speak with Matt Rhodes at the last elitefts Powerlifting Experience and we spoke about training, recovery and aging. Matt is a strength and conditioning coach at the University of Albany. Matt drilled into my head that training is about “quality not quantity” and when you realize you can have two “quality” training sessions a week versus four “average” training sessions, you’ll recover better and progress much better and get stronger with two. You have to be flexible enough to miss a training session or two and not feel guilty about it or try to catch up on any sessions you’ve missed.
There are weeks in my training when I get three to four great training sessions per week and there are other weeks I might get two. There are also weeks (during the dreaded long shift) that might be simple active recovery training or just some simple mobility or stretching work. If I try to lift heavy when I’m exhausted, I’ll only be disappointed and get frustrated because it didn’t go well. Don’t sweat the small stuff!
You have to be realistic.
Shift work is not an optimal environment to train in, let alone trying to plan your training because your work environment it dynamic. Training will never be perfect. If your body is stressed already because of lack of sleep, do you really think it will be advantageous to push even harder when you’re already in a weakened and less than optimal state? You need to start relying on your instinct about how you feel and make decisions from there. Dave Tate emphasizes how difficult it is for people to train smart. I believe the first step to training smart is realizing you can’t train on a specific schedule when you work shift work and once you accept that, you can adjust and adapt. It’s hard to put your ego on the back burner and do what’s right.
I’m no spring chicken and I don’t claim to be the sharpest knife in the drawer but I have realized I can’t train and recover properly without focusing on proper sleep, nutrition and recovery. If I feel “off”, I have no issue taking a day, or two, or three off to step back, take a look at the big picture and continue to get stronger and reach my powerlifting goals.
You may contact Ken via his article page at elitefts.com
Driving Fatigued — A Dangerous Shift Work Reality
You get on the highway. Traffic’s not too bad at first, as you are going against the morning rush. You look over at the westbound traffic and you feel grateful to not be one of “those people” who have to get up every day and do the monotonous 9-5. As the sun starts to rise, traffic slows (nothing like that glare of the new day’s sun to impede your commute). As you start to slow down you realize your body has just done the equivalent of saying “goodnight” ….
…and your eyes start to get even heavier than they were before you started your drive. You roll down your window (yup, even in minus 30 weather). The crisp air and the few deep breaths you take gives you a little more focus. You realize you need to keep moving – you look for the next off ramp and start a mental map of an alternate route - what might be your best bet for traffic that will keep moving? It doesn’t look too bad ahead. This is the fastest way home. And home, is where your bed is. So you stay the course. A few moments pass and you realize you don’t remember merging onto the connecting highway. You actually don’t remember the last few exits. Autopilot. You crank your radio up and reposition slightly in your seat. You find a song you know and give the saddest attempt to sit up right and sing along, tapping your fingers on the steering wheel.
The 5 minutes you take to eat your apple takes you to the last stretch of your drive to bed – I mean home. Farm fields as far as you can see. Why is everyone in such a rush? That’s the 3rd car that has passed you on a single lane roadway. You look down and realize you’re driving well below the speed limit. Well, that won’t get us home any faster! As you attempt to depress the gas pedal you realize that your muscles have thrown in the towel as well. You must now focus intently on applying the needed pressure to keep a consistent and appropriate speed going. You perch your elbow on the opened window’s edge and rest your head on your hand – eyelids forced open by your fingertips. This can’t be safe. Does this happen to everyone coming off of nights you wonder? You get a little more energy as you near the finish line and turn down your street. You pull into your garage. Home. Family. Bed. The fear melts away. You sit back for the first time since your drive began. You are startled by someone knocking on your window. You look down at the clock. 2 hours have passed since you pulled in. It’s your significant other wanting to know why you didn’t come in and go to bed instead of sleeping in your car.
Sound familiar? As you read further, you’ll see that this scenario touches on almost all of the signs of driver’s fatigue. Shift work counted as one of the many reasons that people drive fatigued. Very dangerous both for the driver as well as other drivers and pedestrians – but a scary reality to many night shift workers.
The difference between driver’s fatigue and drowsy driving
Fatigued Driving: fatigued driving refers to a “disinclination to continue performing the driving task at hand”. It can occur as a result of the monotony or repetitiveness of either the driving task or the driving environment, or can occur after driving for extended periods without a rest or break.
Drowsy Driving: drowsy driving is a function of the human body’s natural circadian rhythm or “sleep-wake” cycle, meaning that most people feel sleepy twice a day – at night and in the afternoon. Drivers that operate a vehicle at these times are more likely to feel drowsy.
These definitions were taken from the Traffic Injury Research Foundation. (Traffic Injury Research Foundation). Using these definitions, shift workers can be affected by both fatigued and drowsy driving. Since a shift worker’s circadian rhythm is altered, the times of the day when shift workers feel their sleepiest are not the same as someone who doesn’t work shift work.
How often does this happen?
“Shift worker are more likely than those who work a regular day time schedule to drive to or from work drowsy at least a few days a month (36% vs. 25%)”. (Transport Canada).
Unfortunately, statistics in North America are inconsistent between states and provinces. There is no way to quantify fatigue the way we can for blood alcohol level. As well, drivers are not willing to admit their fault in an accident when driving fatigued or drowsy. The National Highway TSA, in America, conservatively estimates that driving fatigued causes approximately 100, 000 crashes, 1,550 deaths and 71, 000 injuries a year. Australia, England, Finland and Europe collect more consistent data and among them have determined that between 10%-30% of crashes are due to drowsy driving.
“It is estimated that about 20% of fatal collisions involve driver fatigue.”(CCMTA, 2010)
A 2007 survey found that about 60% of Canadian drivers admitted that they occasionally drove while fatigued and 15% of respondents admitted that they had fallen asleep while driving during the past year (Vanlaar et al., 2008). (Transport Canada).
Another survey shows:
An alarming 20 percent of Canadians admit to falling asleep at the wheel at least once over the last year. Studies also suggest fatigue is a factor in about 15 percent of motor vehicle collisions, resulting in about 400 deaths and 2,100 serious injuries every year. (Canada Safety Council).
Decreased sleep correlates with increased accidents
The same people who would never drive impaired by a substance; will not think twice about getting into a vehicle while fatigued. Police cannot lay charges for fatigue impairment (Canada Safety Council). TIRF indicates that charges laid against fatigued drivers include dangerous driving; criminal negligence or impaired driving. The State of New Jersey is the only place in North America that has law for fatigued driving. It is called Maggie’s law and was instituted after a teenager was killed by a driver who had been awake for over 24 hours. A driver causing a fatality in an MVC after not sleeping for 24 hours in the state of New Jersey, can be charged with vehicular homicide.
Warning signs of fatigue include:
• Blinking or yawning frequently
• Closing eyes for a moment or going out of focus
• Having wandering or disconnected thoughts
• Realizing that you have slowed down unintentionally
• Braking too late
• Not being able to remember driving the last few kilometres
• Drifting over the center line onto the other side of the road
What’s being done?
So, we know fatigued driving is a problem, and working shift work makes it more likely that you may drive fatigued and/or drowsy. So what is being done? In Canada there are signs reminding drivers that “Drowsy Driving Causes Crashes” or “Drowsy Drivers Next Exit 5 Kilometres”. There are devices that measure eyelid closures, head nodding, and lane deviations and attempt to warn the driver – however, these have not been proven effective yet. Sadly, these are the only things that could be found prior to publishing this article.
Driving safely after night shift
So, what do we do? Give up shift-work? Don’t work nights? Advocate for sleeping areas in all shift working jobs?
To manage fatigue, drivers can consider doing the following:
• Sleep well prior to long road trips
• Share the driving with other passengers
• Take regular rest stops every couple of hours and do some exercise
• Eat light meals or fruit throughout the journey and drink water;
• If one feels tired during the trip, a nap of twenty to forty minutes is an effective way of reducing sleepiness (Transportation Canada).
I particularly find the first suggestion unobtainable by certain professions. Whether it is back to back traumas, that 3rd alarm fire, the unexpected rave gone wrong or the last stretch of your long haul as a truck driver, there are a plethora of situations that ensure you will not get a break or sleep well prior to your drive home; especially if you have to get home to start your other shift as a parent. There is no easy answer. Some people I know will stay back and rest a few moments with their head on a table. Carpooling may help, however, if you are all on the same schedule you may be playing hot potato with who’s going to be the fatigued driver. Public transit is an option – but don’t be surprised if you miss your stop.
We would love to hear and share your tips and suggestions on what you do to safety make it home after night-shifts.
Catherine Johnson (Shift Worker)
Photo: The Shift Worker’s Head Nod — Adrian Howell Photography (Shift Worker)
Adrian is also on Facebook
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